Volume 5, Part 2 (1997)
S.V. Zinovieva, Z.V. Udalova, I.S. Vasiljeva and V.A. Paseschnichenko.
Action of sterol glycosides on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato
and cucumber roots, 77-80
J. Abolafia. and
R. Pena Santiago. Nematodes of the order Dorylaimda from
Andalucia Oriental, Spain. The genus Mesodorylaimus Andrassy, 1959.
II. Two new species with pre- and/or postvulval ornamentations, 81-88
Santiago and G. Liebanas. Nematodes of the order Dorylaimda from Andalucia
Oriental, Spain. The genus Nygolaimus Cobb, 1913. IV. Description
of N. seguranus sp. n. and its relationship with N. europaeus
(Heyns, 1968) Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1982, 89-95
Romanenko, J.G. Geltzer and N.D. Romanenko. The effect of soil disturbance
in a spruce forest on the abundance of nematode trophic groups, 97-101
O.V.Slobodyanyuk. Revision of the species Psyllotylenchus pawlowskyi
(Kurochkin, 1960) Poinar & Nelson, 1973. I. Redescription of Spilotylenchus
pawlowskyi (sensu stricto) comb. n. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae),
Wasilewska. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators, with special reference to
soil-inhabiting nematodes, 113-126
Spiridonov. and E.S. Ivanova. Filiponema baviense sp. n. (Rhabditida:
Drilonematoidea), a parasite of megascolecid earthworms from the Ba Vi
National park, Vietnam, 127-130
Krasnova and A.N. Pegova. Individual and micro-geographical variability
of the marine nematode Metachromadora vivipara de Man 1907, (Chromadoria:
Desmodorida) in the White Sea, 131-136
A. Ryss. Computerized identification of species of the genus Radopholus
(Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae), 137-142
Subbotin, D. Sturhan, L. Waeyenberge and M. Moens. Heterodera riparia
sp. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) from common nettle, Urtica dioica
L., and rDNA-RFLP separation of species from the H. humuli group, 143-157
Book Reviews, 158-163.
S. V., Udalova, Z. V., Vasiljeva, I. S. and Paseschnichenko, V. A.
Action of sterol glycosides on Meloidogyne incognita
infecting tomato and cucumber roots
Treatment of tomato and cucumber plants with furostanol glycosides
obtained from cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. decreased
their susceptibility to infection by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne
incognita. In treated plants the fecundity of the nematode was decreased
five-fold, females were smaller and the sex ratio shifted toward an increase
Key words: cucumber, furostanol glycosides, induction,
incognita, resistance, tomato.
J. and Pena Santiago, R.
Nematodes of the order Dorylaimda from Andalucia Oriental,
Spain. The genus Mesodorylaimus Andrassy, 1959. II. Two new species
with pre- and/or postvulval ornamentations
Two new species belonging to the genus Mesodorylaimus Andrassy,
1959 are described from natural biotopes in southeastern Spain. Mesodorylaimus
ibericus sp. n. is characterized by its medium sized body (L=1.2-1.8 mm),
lip region offset by a depression or almost continuous, odontostyle 12.5-15 Ám or scarcely longer than the lip region width, V=48-58%, vulva longitudinal,
presence of small irregularities of the outer cuticle next to the vulva,
pars refringens vaginae consisting of two well developed and separated
triangular sclerotizations, female tail long (62-112 Ám, c=14-24, c'=2.4-4.6)
in general with the ventral side straight and the dorsal one first convex
and then concave, and males unknown. Mesodorylaimus ornativulvatus
sp. n. can be distinguished by its small to medium body size (L=0.9-1.1mm),
lip region offset by a depression, odontostyle 10-11 Ám, V=44-52%, presence
of abundant wrinkles and folds on the body cuticle next to the vulva region,
pars refringens vaginae consisting of two well developed close arrow-head
shaped or triangular sclerotizations, female tail filiform (94-144 Ám,
c=8-11, c'5.5-8), male tail rounded (19-25 Ám, c=45-57, c'=0.8-1.0), spicules
40-54 Ám and 8-10 regularly spaced ventromedian supplements beginning outside
the range of the spicules.
Key words: description, Mesodorylaimus ibericus,
Mesodorylaimus ornativulvatus, Spain.
R. and Liebanas, G.
Nematodes of the order Dorylaimda from Andalucia Oriental,
Spain. The genus Nygolaimus Cobb, 1913. IV. Description of N.
seguranus sp. n. and its relationship with N. europaeus (Heyns,
1968) Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1982.
Nygolaimus seguranus sp. n. is described from natural biotopes
in southeastern Spain. The species is characterized by its medium sized
(L=1.1-1.7 mm) body, lip region set off by a constriction and 11-12.5 Ám
wide, deltoid mural tooth 10.5-12.5 Ám long at the dorsal side or almost
equal to the lip region width, pharyngeal bulb encapsulated by a spiral
sheath, V=47.8-57.1%, female tail rounded, conoid (17-20.5 Ám, c=66.6-84.4,
c'=0.9-1.1), male with no or only one ventromedian supplement, and spicules
27-27.5 Ám long. The new species is most similar to N. europaeus
(Heyns, 1968) Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1982, the type specimens of which
were examined during preparation of the description of the new species.
Both species are illustrated, tables of measurements are given,
and their relationship is briefly discussed.
Key words: Nygolaimus europaeus, Nygolaimus seguranus
n., Spain, taxonomy.
E. N., Geltzer, J. G. and Romanenko, N.D.
The effect of soil disturbance in a spruce forest on
the abundance of nematode trophic groups
Changes in the soil nematode fauna of a natural spruce forest caused
by the laying of a gas pipeline were studied in the Moscow region. In the
disturbed soil there was a significant reduction in nematode abundance,
with fewer saprophagous, bacteriophagous and omnivores present. These changes
were correlated with mixing of the soil horizons, change of vegetation
and a reduction in organic matter.
Key words: distribution, nematodes, soil disturbance,
Revision of the species
(Kurochkin, 1960) Poinar & Nelson, 1973. I. Redescription of
pawlowskyi (sensu stricto) comb. n. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae)
The diagnosis and taxonomic status of the species Psyllotylenchus
pawlowskyi Kurochkin, 1960 were investigated. The nematodes were originally
described from two species of fleas, Coptopsylla lamellifer and
laeviceps, but the type specimens have been destroyed or lost. New
specimens were obtained from fleas collected at the type locality and were
used to prepare a redescription of the species. Psyllotylenchus pawlowskyi
sensu Kurochkin, 1960 was found to be a complex of three species: Spilotylenchus
pawlowskyi (sensu stricto) comb. n. a parasite of the flea C. lamellifer,
and two nematode species which parasitize the flea N. laeviceps.
A neotype of S. pawlowskyi (sensu stricto) comb. n. is designated
and the species is distinguished from all other Spilotylenchus species
by the body length of the parasitic female, shape of stylet and position
of the excretory pore.
Key words: biology, flea parasites, neotype, Psyllotylenchus
pawlowskyi (sensu lato), Spilotylenchus pawlowskyi (sensu stricto) comb.
Soil invertebrates as bioindicators, with special reference
to soil-inhabiting nematodes.
Advantages of using terrestrial nematodes as bioindicators are reviewed.
Fifty two studies published between 1990-1996, which used nematodes as
indicators of a variety of soil processes, were examined as part of the
review. A distinction was made between publications reporting changes in
populations of indicator species, and those which referred to changes at
the community level. The Maturity Index, which provides a measure of successional
maturity, has recently attained special significance, therefore studies
examining primary and secondary succession were also included. Considering
pollution and perturbation in an ecosystem as distortions of the natural
process of succession, facilitates an assessment of the quality of environments
differing in vegetation type, plant age, management regime and the temporal
effect of stress. Thus, it becomes possible to evaluate the return to a
previous state following the disappearance of an induced stress.
Key words: bioindication, disturbance, diversity, ecological
ratios, maturity indices, soil nematodes, succession, trophic groups.
S.E. and Ivanova, E. S.
Filiponema baviense sp. n. (Rhabditida: Drilonematoidea),
a parasite of megascolecid earthworms from the Ba Vi National park, Vietnam
Filiponema baviense sp. n. is described from specimens recovered
from the coelomic cavity of megascolecid earthworms collected at the altitude
of 1100 m on Ba Vi mountain, Vietnam. Filiponema baviense sp. n.
is distinguished from congeners by its bifurcated spicular distal end and
by the size and structure of its receptaculum seminis. Fibrous filling
present in the anterior pseudocoel and an oesophageal constriction close
to the stomatal opening resemble the morphology of Pharyngonema mekongianum
Pierantoni, 1923. The diagnosis of Filiponema Timm & Maggenti,
1966 is revised.
Key words: Drilonematidae, earthworm host, Filiponema,
Filiponema baviense sp. n., morphology.
E.D. and Pegova, A.N.
Individual and micro-geographical variability of the
marine nematode Metachromadora vivipara de Man 1907, (Chromadoria: Desmodorida)
in the White Sea.
Males of Metachromadora vivipara from eight localities in the
vicinity of the White Sea Biological station of Moscow State University
differed in the number of preanal supplements (NPS) present and in their
karyotype. Karyotypes of M. vivipara from populations with a mean
NPS greater than 20 had optional B-chromosomes. Conversely, populations
of M. vivipara with a mean NPS less than 20 did not contain B-chromosomes.
This correlation is considered evidence of a genetic basis for the polymorphism.
These two features were used to distinguish the populations examined into
three groups. Differences in mean NPS were stable during several years
of study. Populations with similar characters had close geographical affinity
and distances of only a few kilometres were sufficient for the populations
to be distinct.
Key words: B-chromosomes, karyotype, Metachromadora
vivipara, variability, White Sea
Computerized identification of species of the genus
A polytomous identification key for 24 species of Radopholus
was constructed using the computer software packages EXCEL 5.0, spreadsheets
and BIKEY 7 (Lobanov & Dianov, 1994). Specimen identification
is based on the principle that the initial set of taxa can be investigated
interactively and reduced by different filters (i.e. character states)
in several steps of identification. Quantitative characters are best utilised
by EXCEL which can filter, using 'Autofilter', 'Advanced Filter' or 'Sort',
initial assemblages of taxa by a set of several characters at each step.
Conversely, BIKEY has preferences to utilise qualitative characters and
uses images during selection of character states, with text explanations
providing only an auxiliary aid. This package provides a list of characters, arranged in descending order depending on their diagnostic value (not
at random). In constructing the identification key for Radopholus
it was determined that 20 characters are sufficient to identify 24 species,
with an average identification path of only 5196 steps. The most important
characters are: number of incisures from phasmid to tail terminus, sperm
shape, tail terminus shape, tail terminus annulation, relative width of
the central band in lateral field, number of cephalic annules, number of
incisures in lateral field, and difference in size between the anterior
and posterior spematheca.
Key words: computerized key, Radopholus, pictorial
S.A., Sturhan, D., Waeyenberge, L. and Moens, M.
Heterodera riparia sp. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)
from common nettle, Urtica dioica L., and rDNA-RFLP separation of species
from the H. humuli group.
Heterodera riparia sp. n. from roots of Urtica dioica
L. is described based on materials collected from plants growing at the
sides of rivers, ponds and lakes in Russia, Germany and Belgium. The new
species is similar to H. humuli, but differs by its smaller average
cyst size (415-468 Ám vs. 452-524 Ám in H. humuli) and shorter average
fenestra length (46-52 Ám vs. 56-61 Ám). The second stage juveniles of
riparia sp. n. have a lower average body length (350-373 Ám vs. generally
> 375 Ám), a shorter tail (40-47 Ám vs. 50-57 Ám) and a shorter hyaline
part of tail (18-23 Ám vs. generally > 27 Ám). One generation of the nematode
developed during the vegetative season. Restriction enzyme analysis of
ribosomal DNA sequences was used to distinguish Heterodera riparia
sp. n. from the related species H. humuli and H. fici. The
pattern of restriction bands obtained with AluI clearly distinguished all
species from each other and the enzymes CfoI and PstI also distinguished
the new species from the other species. The distribution of the new species
in Europe is reported.
Key words: cyst nematodes, distribution, Heterodera
riparia sp. n., H. fici, H. humuli, ITS, morphometrics, PCR,