Volume 3, Part 1 (1995)
Ley and A. Coomans. Terrestrial nematodes of the Galapagos Archipelago
V: Description of Aquatides coboi sp. n., with a key to the genus (Dorylaimida:
and M.T.M. Almeida. Ecology of longidorid nematodes, 9-21.
Tzortzakakis, A.G. De R. Channer, S.R. Gowen and D.E. Goumas. Preliminary studies
on the effect of the host plant on the susceptibility of Meloidogyne
nematodes to spore attachment by the obligate parasite Pasteuria penetrans,
and A.S. Eroshenko. Pararotylenchus graminis sp. n. (Tylenchida:
Pararotylenchidae) from native meadows in the Primorsky region, Russian
Far East, 27-29.
Volkova. Geocenamus khashanicus sp. n. (Tylenchida: Merliniinae)
from the Russian Far East, 31-33.
and N.V. Kolossova. The potential of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus
xylophilus to become established in countries of the former USSR, 35-48.
D.J.F. Brown and C.E. Taylor. The occurrence and distribution of
Longidoridae and Trichodoridae in the Slovak Republic, 49-60.
T. Bongers, R.G.N. de Goede, G.W. Korthals and G.W. Yeates. Proposed
changes of c-p classification for nematodes, 61-62.
V.G. Gagarin. Morphology and taxonomy of the genus Fictor Paramonov,
1952 (Rhabditida: Diplogasteridae), 63-64.
S.V. Zinovieva, O.L. Ozeretskovskaya, L.I. Iliinskaya, N.I. Vasyukova and
Z.V. Udalova. Biogenic elicitor (arachidonic acid) induced resistance
in tomato to Meloidogyne incognita, 65-67.
- Book Reviews, 68-69.
De Ley, P.
and Coomans, A.
Terrestrial nematodes of the Galapagos Archipelago
V: Description of Aquatides coboi sp. n., with a key to the genus
Aquatides coboi sp. n. was found on Isla Fernandina and Isla
Santa Cruz of the Galapagos Archipelago. This new species is smaller than
any known species of the genus (L = 0.7-1.0 mm) and appears to be autotokous
(no males found, no sperm seen in fifty-two females). It has a lip region
with sucker-shaped anterior surface and small liplets, a mural tooth measuring
11 - 15 µm, and very short uteri (5-16 µm). SEM photographs are shown.
Two females from Isla Santa Cruz of the known species A. thornei
are also described. A lattice key to Aquatides is presented.
Key words: new species, Aquatides, A. coboi sp.
n., nematoda, key, taxonomy, Galapagos.
B. and Almeida, M.T.M.
Ecology of longidorid nematodes
This review demonstrates how the main aspects of a nematode's biology
are influenced by major ecological factors. Global distribution of longidorids
is determined by natural geological events (e.g. continental drift) and
by man-made dissemination with plant material. The present regional distribution
is due to quaternary glaciation, post-glacial spread, climate and soil
properties. Local occurrence is essentially governed by microclimate, soil
and vegetation. Depth distribution depends mainly on soil texture, soil
moisture and host roots. Soil texture is particularly important for migration
because large nematodes such as longidorids are unable to force a passage
through the soil as roots do. Main factors influencing population development
are the reproductive capacity of a species, the climate, host plants and
antagonists. Some longidorids have developed strategies for survival in
plant-free soil and under adverse conditions.
Key words: Longidorus, Xiphinema, Paralongidorus,
distribution, ecology, survival, host interactions.
E.A., Channer, A.G.De R., Gowen, S.R. and Goumas, D .E.
Preliminary studies on the effect of the host plant
on the susceptibility of Meloidogyne nematodes to spore attachment
by the obligate parasite Pasteuria penetrans
Variability in the number of spores of the bacterial parasite Pasteuria
penetrans which attached to second stage juveniles of a mixed Meloidogyne
javanica / M. incognita population after development on different
host plants was recorded. These differences may result from the prevalence
of different selected sub-populations with variable susceptibility to the
bacterium due to competitive differences in growth and reproductive efficiency
between species, races and biotypes. Therefore, the long term effect of
the parasite on field populations of Meloidogyne is likely to be
less consistent under crop rotations than under monoculture.
Key words: bacterial parasite, Meloidogyne javanica,
M. incognita, root knot nematodes, spore adhesion.
and Eroshenko, A.S.
Pararotylenchus graminis sp. n. (Tylenchida: Pararotylenchidae)
from native meadows in the Primorsky region, Russian Far East
Pararotylenchus graminis sp. n. is described from the rhizosphere
of wild grasses growing in the south of the Primorsky region, Russian Far
East. It differs from P. pini by having a shorter body and stylet
and a longer tail and from P. flexuosus by having a shorter body
and stylet and by the presence of males.
Key words: Pararotylenchus graminis sp. n., spiral
nematode, Pararotylenchidae, taxonomy, Primorsky region, Russia
Geocenamus khashanicus sp. n. (Tylenchida:Merliniinae)
from the Russian Far East
A new species Geocenamus khashanicus sp. n. is described from
the rhizosphere of Carex cryptocarpa and Geranium soboliferum
from the south of the Primorje Territory. It is distinguished from G.
patternus by the presence of a smooth terminus, absence of cuticular
longitudinal lines and longer spicules and gubernaculum.
Key words: Geocenamus khashanicus sp. n., Merliniinae,
taxonomy, stunt nematodes, Russian Far East.
O.A. and Kolossova, N.V.
The potential of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus
xylophilus to become estabished in countries of the former USSR
The potential for establishment of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus
xylophilus in countries of the former USSR and their possible threat
to conifers in these areas are discussed. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus
is wide-spread, however B. xylophilus has not been found in the
former USSR territories. Conditions exist which are suitable for the colonization
by B. xylophilus, and the resultant occurrence of pine wilt disease,
in both the European and Asian parts of the former USSR: vectors (Monochamus),
susceptible plants, and favorable climatic factors. Based on an analysis
of the potential distribution of B. xylophilus it may be concluded
that a threat exists to conifer forests in several areas and territories
of the former USSR. This threat is mainly from B. xylophilus, which
has the potential to develop as a major factor to the detriment of Russian
forestry due to both disease establishment and problems presented with
international export of timber product.
Key words: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, B. mucronatus,
nematode, Monochamus, vector, former USSR, distribution, coniferous
, Brown, D.J.F. and Taylor, C.E.
The occurrence and distribution of Longidoridae and
Trichodoridae in the Slovak Republic
The occurrence and geographical distribution in Slovakia of members
of the Longidoridae was comprehensively examined during 1992 and 1993 and
the occurrence of Trichodoridae in potato crops was also recorded. Nine
one Paralongidorus and seven Xiphinema species were identified
from soil samples collected in vineyards, orchards, hedgerows and forests.
Additionally, from samples collected in potato fields, one Paratrichodorus
and two Trichodorus species were identified.
and P. maximus occurred throughout the country whereas the other
Longidorus species were restricted to discrete areas. Xiphinema
taylori was widely distributed throughout Slovakia, X. vuittenezi
was widespread in the warmer southern areas, and the other Xiphinema
species had more localised distributions usually associated with particular
soil or climatic characteristics or plant hosts. Longidorid nematodes were
frequently recovered as populations comprised of two or more species. Trichodorus
similis was present in the west, and T. primitivus and Paratrichodorus
pachydermus in the east of the country, but trichodorids were not found
in samples from the principal potato growing area. Southern Slovakia, which
has relatively warm soil temperatures, appears to be the northern limit
of the distribution of several species considered to indigenous to the
Mediterranean region, viz. X. italiae, X. pachtaicum and X. similis.
Key words: Longidorus, Xiphinema, Paralongidorus, distribution,